Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet with low glycemic index and low glycemic load on body adiposity, metabolic variables, ghrelin, leptin, and pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women: a randomized controlled trial. This study investigated the effect of either a low GI or high GI diet on 26 overweight or obese infertile women over a 3 month period. Women consuming the low GI diet lost more weight and body fat, their waist:hip ratio improved, and they produced 85.4% more oocytes, compared to those consuming the high GI diet. Three patients (21.4%) in the low GI group experienced a spontaneous pregnancy during the follow-up, which generated 3 live births. Becker et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec;102(6):1365-72.
Dietary intervention in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials on maternal and newborn outcomes. This systematic review found that consuming low GI diets led to less frequent insulin use and lower birth weight than control diets. Kilojoule restricted and low carbohydrate diets did not change either maternal or newborn outcomes. The authors concluded that the most appropriate dietary intervention to be prescribed to women with gestational diabetes is a low GI diet. Viana et al. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(12):3345-55.
Maternal dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in early pregnancy are associated with offspring adiposity in childhood: the Southampton Women’s Survey. Higher maternal dietary GI and GL in early pregnancy are associated with greater adiposity (body fat) in childhood. Okubo et al, AJCN, 2014
The influence of a low glycemic index dietary intervention on maternal dietary intake, glycemic index and gestational weight gain during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. A dietary intervention in early pregnancy (before 22 weeks) had a positive influence on maternal GI, food and nutrient intakes (significantly lower energy intake, higher protein and dietary fibre intake) and gestational weight gain (GWG). Following a low GI diet may be particularly beneficial for women at risk of exceeding the GWG goals for pregnancy. McGowan et al Nutr J. 2013 Oct 31;12(1):140
Low glycaemic index diets improve glucose tolerance and body weight in women with previous history of gestational diabetes: a six months randomized trial. In women who have previously had gestational diabetes, a healthy low GI diet resulted in significant improvements in glucose tolerance and reduced body weight compared to conventional low-fat diets with similar kilojoule content. Shyam et al. Nutr J. 2013 May 24;12:68.
For more information on GI & Pregnancy please review our fact sheets:
Glycemic Index & Pregnancy – Healthcare Professional